Hip Hop

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Hip hop is a musical genre which developed alongside the Blaxploitation culture, defined by key stylistic elements such as Rap, Scratch mixing DJing, sampling and beatboxing. Hip hop grew out of the Bronx in New York City during the 1970s, primarily among African Americans and Jamaican Americans, with some Latino influences. It also takes in a broad conglomerate of artistic forms that originated within various subcultures from the South Bronx and Harlem in New York City during 1970s.

It can be characterised by four distinct elements, all of which represent the different manifestations of this culture;-
Rap, this being the distinctive vocal element.
Turntablism or "DJing",
"Breaking" the associated dance style
Graffiti art, a style of art that often goes hand in hand with Hip Hop.
Even while it continues in contemporary history to develop globally in a flourishing myriad of diverse styles, these foundational elements provide stability and coherence to the culture.

One of the origin of the hip-hop subculture stemmed from the block parties of the Ghetto Brothers, when they plugged the amps for their instruments and speakers into the lampposts on 163rd Street and Prospect Avenue, and from DJ Kool Herc at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, where he mixed samples of existing records with his own shouts to the crowd and dancers. Dj Kool Herc is credited as the "father" of hip hop. DJ Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, to which he coined the terms: MCing or "Emceein", DJing or "Deejayin", B-boying and graffiti writing or "Aerosol Writin". Another huge influence would be Blaxploitation Music, this was a time and a music scene that had a huge fight for its identity.

Since its evolution throughout the South Bronx, hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the world. Hip hop music first emerged with Kool Herc and contemporary disc jockeys and imitators creating rhythmic beats by looping breaks (small portions of songs emphasising a percussive pattern) on two turntables. This was later accompanied by "Rap", a rhythmic style of chanting or poetry often presented in 16-bar measures or time frames, and beatboxing, a vocal technique mainly used to provide percussive elements of music and various technical effects of hip hop DJs, the term Rap is often used synonymously with hip hop, but hip hop denotes the practices of an entire subculture.

An original form of dancing and particular styles of dress arose among fans of this new music. These elements experienced considerable adaptation and development over the course of the history of the culture.

Hip hop is simultaneously a new and old phenomenon; the importance of sampling to the art form means that much of the culture has revolved around the idea of updating classic recordings, attitudes, and experiences for modern audiences—called "flipping" within the culture. It follows in the footsteps of earlier American musical genres such as Blues, Salsa, Jazz, and Rock n Roll in having become one of the most practiced genres of music in existence worldwide, and also takes additional inspiration regularly from Soul music, Funk, and Rhythm and Blues.