A broad sub genre of Experimental Rock that developed out of Germany during the late 1960s.
The term was originated by English-speaking music journalists as a humorous name for a diverse range of German bands whose music drew from sources such as Psychedelic Rock, Avant-Garde electronic music, Funk, Minimalism, Jazz Improvisation, and World Music styles.
Largely divorced from the traditional Blues and Rock n Roll influences of British and American Rock music up to that time, the period contributed to the evolution of Electronic Music and Ambient music as well as the birth of Post Punk, Alternative Rock, New-Age, and New Wave music.
The word Krautrock was originally a humorous one coined in the early 1970s by the UK music newspaper Melody Maker, in which experimental German bands found an early and enthusiastic following, and ironically retained by its practitioners.
The term derives from the ethnic slur "kraut", and its use by the music press was inspired by a track from Amon Düül's Psychedelic Underground titled "Mama Düül und Ihre Sauerkrautband Spielt Auf" ('Mama Düül and her Sauerkrautband Strike Up').
As is often the case with musical genre labels, few of the bands wished to see themselves pigeon-holed and most tended to eschew the term.
Musicologist Julian Cope, in his book Krautrocksampler, says "Krautrock is a subjective British phenomenon," based on the way the music was received in the UK rather than on the actual West German music scene out of which it grew.
For instance, while one of the main groups originally tagged as krautrock, Faust, recorded a seminal 12-minute track they titled "Krautrock", they would later distance themselves from the term, saying: "When the English people started talking about Krautrock, we thought they were just taking the piss... and when you hear the so-called 'Krautrock renaissance,' it makes me think everything we did was for nothing."
Krautrock is an eclectic style which drew on a variety of sources.
Some artists drew on ideas from contemporary Experimental Classical music (especially minimalism) and composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, with whom, for example, Irmin Schmidt and Holger Czukay of CAN had previously studied, and from the new experimental directions that emerged in Jazz during the 1960s and 1970s (mainly the Free Jazz pieces by Ornette Coleman or Albert Ayler). Moving away from the patterns of song structure and melody of much Rock music in America and Britain, some in the movement also drove the music to a more mechanical and electronic sound (a group of 5 expatriate Americans, The Monks, who toured playing beat music clubs throughout Germany, were also exploring this Industrial/Mechanical sound, as evidenced on their 1966 German-only release LP "Black Monk Time").
The key component characterizing the groups gathered under the term is the synthesis of Rock n Roll rhythm and energy with a decided will to distance themselves from specifically American Blues origins, but to draw on German or other sources instead. Jean-Hervé Peron of Faust says: "We were trying to put aside everything we had heard in rock 'n' roll, the three-chord pattern, the lyrics. We had the urge of saying something completely different."
Typical bands dubbed "krautrock" in the 1970s included Tangerine Dream, Faust, CAN, Amon Düül II, Ash Ra Tempel and others associated with the celebrated Cologne-based producers and engineers Dieter Dierks and Conny Plank, such as Neu!, Kraftwerk and Cluster. Bands such as these were reacting against the post-World War II cultural vacuum in Germany and tending to reject Anglo-American popular culture in favour of creating their own more radical and experimental new German culture and identity, and to develop a radically new musical aesthetic.
Many of these groups began their musical careers with little or no awareness of (or interest in) Rock n Roll: exposure to the increasingly radical and innovative music of The Velvet Underground, Pink Floyd, Frank Zappa and Jimi Hendrix, for example, led members of groups like CAN and Kraftwerk to embrace popular music for the first time.
The signature sound of krautrock mixed Rock music and "Rock band" instrumentation (guitar, bass, drums) with electronic instrumentation and textures, often with what would now be described as an ambient music sensibility. A common rhythm featured in the music was a steady 4/4 beat, often called "motorik" in the anglophone music press.
Krautrock was heavily influential on Hip Hop artists from the 1980s onwards, who frequently sampled bands such as CAN and Kraftwerk because of their inherent Funkiness. An example of this is Afrika Bambaataa and Soulsonic Force's 'Planet Rock', which conspicuously samples Kraftwerk's 'Trans-Europe Express.'
Krautrock has proved to be highly influential on a succession of other musical styles and developments.
Early contemporary enthusiasts outside Germany included Hawkwind and in particular Dave Brock who supposedly penned the sleeve notes for the British edition of Neu!'s first album, Faust's budget release The Faust Tapes has been cited as a formative teenage influence by several musicians growing up in the early 1970s such as Julian Cope (who has always cited krautrock as an influence, and wrote the book Krautrocksampler on the subject).
The genre was also a strong influence to David Bowie's Station to Station (1976) and this kind of experimentation led to his 'Berlin Trilogy'.
Krautrock was also highly influential on the late-'70s development of Post Punk, notably artists such as The Fall, Joy Division, Public Image Ltd, This Heat and Simple Minds, and on Galloping Coroners' shaman Punk.
During the 1980s, several bands involved in Psychedelic Rock cited Krautrock as a significant influences: these included The Legendary Pink Dots who claimed heavy inspiration from CAN, Faust and Neu! in particular (one of their few cover songs was Neu!'s "Super" on the Cleopatra Records album A Homage to NEU!, which featured covers and remixes by bands including Autechre, Dead Voices On Air, Khan, System 7, James Plotkin.
By the late 1990s and early 2000s, with the resurgence of electronic music and a new generation rediscovering much of the early German music, krautrock came to be considered a style in and of itself, as well as becoming a blueprint for a lot of experimental dance and ambient music. At Julian Cope's suggestion, The Kosmische Club was founded in London in 1996 (with the motto "Music from the Future") and did much to promote the genre on the underground music scene, including promoting gigs featuring many of the original German musicians.
Artists such as Stereolab, Cocteau Twins, My Bloody Valentine, John Frusciante, Sonic Youth, The Mars Volta, Deerhunter, Queens of the Stone Age, Ned Collette, Sean Filkins, Cloudland Canyon, Laika, Mouse on Mars, Bowery Electric, Beck, I Am Spoonbender, Tortoise, and Fujiya & Miyagi have worked under the Post-Rock and electronica rubrics or cited bands in the krautrock canon as being among their more significant influences. "These Are My Twisted Words" by Radiohead is considered to be a Krautrock throwback; Radiohead have also covered CAN's song "Thief" and cite CAN, Faust, and Neu! among their influences, while The Secret Machines not only covered Harmonia's "(De Luxe) Immer Wieder" on their The Road Leads Where It's Led EP, but have also played live with Michael Rother. Steven Wilson has demonstrated an enthusiasm for the genre in several of his projects (Porcupine Tree covered Neu!'s "Hallogallo" as a demo for their album Signify, and Wilson dedicated his Incredible Expanding Mindfuck project to exploring Krautrock).
Wilco has shown a growing krautrock influence in their music, specifically on Yankee Hotel Foxtrot and several songs on A Ghost Is Born, especially "Spiders (Kidsmoke)." In interviews Jeff Tweedy has often spoken of his admiration for CAN and Neu!. Current 93 covered Sand's "When the May Rain Comes" on their album Thunder Perfect Mind.
Ash Ra Tempel
The Cosmic Jokers
Eno - Moebius - Roedelius - Plank
Moebius & Plank