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As always, seek professional advice before using any of the methods listed.


This is a type of Alternative Medicine that has its emphasis on the physical manipulation of the body's muscle tissue and bones. The name is derived from the Ancient Greek "bone" (ὀστέον) and "disease of" (-πάθεια),

Whether osteopathy should qualify as an "Alternative Medicine"", or not is debatable, as it is well recognised by many medical bodies, as is explained below.

Osteopathic medicine throughout the USA differs in scope and approach from osteopathy as practised in Europe. The USA recognises a branch of the medical profession called osteopathic physicians, trained and certified to practice all modern medicine, while in other countries around the world osteopaths are trained only in manual osteopathic treatment, generally to relieve muscular and skeletal conditions. In some countries osteopathy is practised by specially-trained doctors and physiologists, but osteopaths trained outside of the USA are generally not physicians and use only non-invasive manual therapies, though they may provide nutritional, postural, and other health advice. To avoid confusion the American Osteopathic Association and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine recommend using the terms osteopathic physician (U.S.-trained only) and osteopathic medicine in reference to osteopathic medicine as practised in the United States.

There is little evidence that osteopathy is effective in treating any medical condition other than lower back pain. According to the NYU Langone Medical Center, the fundamental reason for the lack of published research on osteopathic treatment is the inability to employ double-blind, placebo-controlled trials when studying osteopathic manipulation, since researchers are unable to blind both the practitioner and the patient. Analysis of peer-reviewed research yields little evidence that osteopathy is effective for non-musculo-skeletal conditions, and limited evidence that osteopathy is an effective treatment for some types of neck pain, shoulder pain, or limb pain.